Volume 13, August 2021
Sperger's Cadenzas for his Contrabass Concertos: A Study of Compositional Techniques and Improvisational Strategies for Creating Cadenzas

by Renaud Boucher-Browning


Endnotes

1 David Dolan, "Back to the Future: Towards the Revival of Extemporization in Classical Music Performance," in The Reflective Conservatoire: Studies in Music Education, ed. George Odam and Nicholas Bannan (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), 91-126. David Dolan, "Walking Freely on a Firm Ground," Music in Time (January 2000): 13-20.

2 Robin Stowell, "Performance Practice in the Eighteenth-Century Concerto," in The Cambridge Companion to the Concerto, ed. Simon P. Keefe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 218, 220-221.

3 William Drabkin, "An Interpretation of Musical Dreams: Towards a Theory of the Mozart Piano Concerto Cadenza," in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Essays on His Life and His Music, ed. Stanley Sadie (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 163. The analogy between cadenzas and dreams originally appears in Daniel Gottlob Türk, School of Clavier Playing [1789], trans. Raymond H. Haggh (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 498n18.

4 Christoph Wolff, "Cadenzas and Styles of Improvisation in Mozart's Piano Concertos," in Perspectives on Mozart Performance, ed. R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 229-232. See also Türk, School of Clavier Playing, 289-296.

5 Robert Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," in The Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music: Performance Practice, Music After 1600, ed. Howard Mayer and Stanley Sadie (London: W. W. Norton & Co., 1989), 284.

6 Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Mozart: The Performance of His Piano Pieces and Other Compositions, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2010), 213-250.

7 Robin Moore, "The Decline of Improvisation in Western Art Music: An Interpretation of Change," International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 23, no. 1 (June 1992): 67-72. For a discussion of Sperger's place in this shift from aristocratic to bourgeois music-making, see Josef Focht, "Music in Ludwigslust: The Double Bassists Around Sperger and Their Places of Action," Magazine of the International J.M. Sperger Society (2019): 14-18.

8 See Appendix E for a map showing the cities where Sperger lived, worked, and performed. See Appendix F for a partial chronological list of contrabass concertos by Sperger and his contemporaries. For biographical background on Sperger in English, see Josef Focht, "Die Position Spergers als Kontrabassist der Mecklenburg-Schweriner Hofkapelle" [Sperger's Position as Double Bassist of the Mecklenburg-Schwerin Court Orchestra], trans. James Lambert, Sperger Forum 2/3, 4/5 (2004, 2006): 35; Klaus Trumpf, "Johann Sperger," trans. Sharon Brown, Bass World 1, no.3 (1975): 86-90; Klaus Trumpf, "Mozart Requiem for a Double Bassist," trans. Anja Weineck-Hucke with Vincent Osborn, Bass World 40, no. 1 (2017): 59-62; Klaus Trumpf, "The Mozart Requiem for a Double Bassist (Part 2): Viennese-Tuned Double Bass," Bass World 40, no. 3 (2018): 25-31; and Klaus Trumpf,  "The Mozart Requiem for a Double Bassist, Part 3," trans. Vincent Osborn, Bass World 41, no. 3 (2019): 17-21.

9 For modern examples of cadenza networks, see Robert Levin, Cadenzas to Mozart's Violin Concertos, preface by Gidon Kremer (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1992).

10 Carl Philip Emanuel Bach, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments [Berlin, 1753/1762], trans. and ed. William J. Mitchell (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1949), 142-146. Johann Joachim Quantz, On Playing the Flute [Berlin, 1752], trans. Edward R. Reilly (New York: Schirmer Books, 1985), 179-187. Türk, School of Clavier Playing [Leipzig, 1789], 297-309. Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Mozart, 213-288. Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," 267-291. Frederick Neumann, Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 240-281. Philip Whitmore, Unpremeditated Art: The Cadenza in the Classical Keyboard Concerto (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991). Eva Badura-Skoda, "On Improvised Embellishments and Cadenzas in Mozart's Piano Concertos," in Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation, ed. Neal Zaslaw (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), 365-371. Wolfgang Fetsch, "Cadenzas in the Mozart Concertos," Clavier 30, no. 10, (Dec. 1991), 13-17. Christoph Wolff, "Cadenzas and Styles of Improvisation in Mozart's Piano Concertos," 228-38. Chrisoph Wolff, "Zur Chronologie der Klavierkonzert-Kadenzen Mozarts," Mozart-Jahrbuch 1978-79, 235-246. Neal Zaslaw, "One More Time: Mozart and His Cadenzas," in The Century of Bach and Mozart: Perspectives on Historiography, Composition, Theory, and Performance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008), 239-249. Eduard Melkus, Cadenzas for Mozart's Violin Concertos (Vienna: Doblinger, 2013). Eduard Melkus, "On the Problem of Cadenzas in Mozart's Violin Concertos," in Perspectives on Mozart Performance, ed. R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams, trans. Tim Burris (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 74-91. Robin Stowell, "Improvisation," in Violin Technique and Performance Practice in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 337-367. Zachary Ebin, "Period Style Cadenzas for Mozart's Violin Concertos," American String Teacher (February 2012): 38-43. Natalie Farrell, "Facing the Fermata: Recreating the Classical Cadenza in Modern Performances of Mozart's Flute Concerti," The Flutist Quarterly (Fall 2016): 35-38. Leslie Hart, "The Creative Hornist: Improvising Cadenzas in Mozart," The Horn Call - Journal of the International Horn Society 40, no. 3 (May 2010): 67-69. Betty Bang Mather and David Lasocki, The Classical Woodwind Cadenza: A Workbook (New York: McGinnis & Marx, 1979).

11 Adolf Meier, "The Vienna Double Bass and Its Technique During the Era of the Vienna Classic," trans. Klaus Schruff, International Society of Bassists Journal 13, no. 3 (Spring 1987): 10-16.

12 Josef Focht, "Solo Music for the Viennese Double Bass and Mozart's Compositions with Obbligato Passages for Double Bass." International Society of Bassists Journal 18, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 45-52.

13 Josef Focht, Der Wiener Kontrabass: Spieltechnik und Auffürungspraxis, Musik und Instrumente [The Viennese Contrabass: Playing Technique and Performance Practice, Music and Instruments] (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1999). Adolf Meier, Konzertante Musik für Kontrabass in der Wiener Klassik [Concertante Music for Contrabass in Viennese Classicism](Giebing über Prien und Chiemsee: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler, 1969). Alfred Planyavsky, Geschichte des Kontrabasses [History of Double Basses](Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1984). Igor Pecevski, "The Double Bass Playing Technique of J. M. Sperger," in Geschichte, Bauweise und Spieltechnik der tiefen Streichinstrumente, ed. Monica Lustig (Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2000): 129-138.

14 J. M. Sperger, Konzert D-Dur (Nr. 15) für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Michinori Bunya, cad. Claus Kühnl (Hofheim: Friedrich Hofmeister Musikverlag, 1999), ii. " . . . bemerkenswert ist auch das nur einmal überraschend aufretende neue Thema in der Durchfürung — ob Sperger darüber vielleicht in einer Kadenz improvisieren wollte?"

15 Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Konzert in E-Dur [No. 2], ed. Franz Tischer-Zeitz (Mainz: Schott, 1938), 4-5. Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Concertos for Double Bass and Orchestra [Nos. 1 and 2], ed. Rodney Slatford (London: Yorke Edition, 1978), 4-5, 8-9, 12-13, and 15. Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, Concerto in D major,ed. Klaus Trumpf (Leipzig: Hofmeister, 1996), 5, 8, and 12. Sperger's cadenzas for these concertos first appeared in these editions.

16 David Fuller, "The Performer as Composer" in The Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music: Performance Practice, Music After 1600, ed. Howard Mayer and Stanley Sadie (London: W.W. Norton & Co., 1989), 117-120. Fuller develops this jazz analogy.

17 Leonard B. Meyer, Style and Music: Theory, History, Ideology (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989), 12, 13-23.

18 William Caplin, Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 243. William Caplin, Analyzing Classical Form: An Approach for the Classroom (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2013), 673.

19 Joseph P. Swain, "Form and Function of the Classical Cadenza," Journal of Musicology 6 (1988): 27-59. Danuta Mirka, "The Cadence of Mozart's Cadenzas," Journal of Musicology 22 (2005): 292-325. Matthew Bribitzer-Stull, "The Cadenza as Parenthesis: An Analytic Approach," Journal of Music Theory 50 no. 2 (2006): 211-251.

20 Quantz, On Playing the Flute, 179-87. Türk, School of Clavier Playing, 297-309. Heinrich Christoph Koch, Introductory Essay on Composition: The Mechanical Rules of Melody, Sections 3 and 4, trans. Nancy Kovaleff Baker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), 212. Heinrich Christoph Koch, Musikalisches Lexicon (Frankfurt am Main: August Hermann der Jüngere, 1802), 1575-1576.

21 Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Mozart,216-234.

22 Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," 283.

23 Türk, School of Clavier Playing, 302-303. Drabkin, "An Interpretation of Musical Dreams," 165, 173.

24 Vasili Byros, "Towards an 'Archaeology' of Hearing: Schemata and Eighteenth-Century Consciousness," Musica Humana 1, no. 2 (2009): 244, 247. The le-sol-fi-sol or fi-sol-le-sol schema refers to movable-dosolfège.

25 Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," 279-280.

26 Robert Gjerdingen, in Music in the Galant Style (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 45-46, uses 'opening gambit' to refer to a composer's starting schema; I use it to mean the strategy of quoting a theme to open a cadenza.

27 Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," 283.

28 Mirka, "The Cadence of Mozart's Cadenzas," 305-325.

29 Adolf Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis der Kompositionen von Johannes Sperger (1750-1812), ed. Eitelfriedrich Thom (Michaelstein/Blankenburg: Institut für Auffürungspraxis der Kultur- und Forschungsstätte Michaelstein, 1990), 31-40. For catalogue information about the concertos by Dittersdorf, Zimmermann [No. 1 only], Vanhal, and Hoffmeister, see Meier, Konzertante Musik für Kontrabass in der Wiener Klassik,148-156.

30 The score of Concerto No. 2 is in D, but the parts are in E♭ major. See Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 33.

31 J. M. Sperger, Konzert D-Dur (Nr. 2) für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Hofheim: Hofmeister, 1999), 23-24. This movement is transposed to D major in this edition; this example appears in the original written key of A major. The cadenza incipit is from D-SWI: Mus 5872/4, L 2i, shown in Example 2.7.

32 Josef Focht, "Kontrabaß-Musik in der Mecklenburg-Schweriner Hofkapelle: Die Nachlässe von Johann Sperger (1750-1812) und Gustav Láska (1847-1928) in der Musikaliensammlung der Landesbibliothek Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Schwerin," in Studien zur lokalen und territorialen Musikgeschichte Mecklenburgs und Pommerns, Vol. 2, ed. Ekkehard Ochs (Greifswald: Landesmusikrat Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 2002), 96. For Kämpfer's biography, see Mary Térey-Smith, "Joseph Kämpfer: A Contrabass Virtuoso from Pozsony (Bratislava)," Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, no. 1 (1983): 183-189.

33 Darina Múdra, Anton Zimmermann (1741-1781): Thematisches Werkverzeichnis (Frankfurt: P. Lang, 2012), 219-221. Concerto No. 1 in D: Schwerin, D-SWI Mus 5817. Concerto No. 2 in D: Kremsmünster, A-KR H 48/147.

34 Anton Zimmermann, Instrumental Concertos: Concerto for Double Bass and Orchestra in D major and Concerto for Harpsichord and Orchestra in D major,ed. Darina Múdra,Marica Dobiašova, harpsichord, Radoslav Šašina, double bass, Peter Zajícek, director, Musica Aeterna Bratislava (Bratislava: Slovak Treasures, 1992), CD TREC 4-0010. Wiener Kontrabass Konzerte,Edicson Ruiz, double bass, cadenzas by J. M. Sperger and Anner Bylsma, Cristian Vasquez, director, Sinfónica Juvenil Teresa Carreño de Venezuela(Phil. harmonie, 2011): PHIL 06020.

35 The Adagio in Zimmermann's Concerto No. 1 is in G major; see D-SWI: Mus 5817 score, 17-20. Múdra, Anton Zimmermann, 219 incorrectly lists the transposed solo tuning key (A) from the first edition of this concerto: Anton Zimmermann, Konzert D-Dur für Kontrabass und Orchester,ed. Rudolph Malarić (Vienna: Doblinger, 1978). For details, see Rodney Slatford, "Review: Double Bass," The Musical Times 122, no. 1662 (August 1981): 542-543.

36 Giovanni Sperger, Concerto Ex A per il Contrabasso [No. 7, 1781], Mus 5176/8 solo part, 17-18.

37 Johann Baptiste Vanhal, Double Bass Concerto, ed. Tobias Glöckler (Munich: Henle, 2015), 14 [solo part].

38 Meier, Konzertante Musik für Kontrabass in der Wiener Klassik, 146, lists this concerto as Concerto No. 1; it is held by D-SWI in Mus 2850. For explanation of the numbering change to No. 3, see Tobias Glöckler, "Ein Ganz Besonders 'Schmankerl:' Hoffmeisters Konzert 'Nr. 1' für Kontrabass," Das Orchester 50, no. 9 (2002): 35, 40.

39 Trumpf, "Mozart Requiem for a Double Bassist, Part 3," 17.

40 Johann Baptiste Vanhal, Double Bass Concerto,ed. Tobias Glöckler (Munich: Henle, 2015), v [Preface].

41 Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 36.

42 They also match the first movements of No. 10 and No. 13, but these movements already have notated cadenzas.

43 Giovanni Sperger, Concerto in D per il Contrabasso [No. 15, 1796], D-SWI: Mus 5177/5 solo part, 8.

44 Robert Levin, Cadenzas to Mozart's Violin Concertos (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1992).

45 Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 37.

46 Giovanni Sperger, Concerto in C Mol per il Contrabasso [No. 18, 1807], D-SWI: Mus 5176/5 solo part, 8-9.

47 Giovanni Sperger, Concerto in E per il Contrabasso [No. 9, 1785-1787], D-SWI: Mus 5177/7 solo part, 8-9. Giovanni Sperger, Concerto in E per il Contrabasso [No. 10, 1787], D-SWI: Mus 5177/1 solo part, 10-11.

48 Facsimiles of these manuscript cadenzas are in Vaňhal, Concerto D major for Double Bass and Orchestra, 4. The original manuscripts are in Giovanni Vanhal, Concerto in E per il Contrabasso, D-SWI: Mus 5512.

49 Like Sperger, Mozart only wrote a cadenza into the score once, for the first movement of his Piano Concerto in A major, K. 488. See Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Mozart,252.

50 The figuration in bars 3-10 differs between the solo part and the score, as does the register of the final trill.

51 Quantz, On Playing the Flute [1752], 181. Türk, School of Clavier Playing [1789], 301. Quantz holds that cadenzas, as extempore embellishments, should "sound like impromptu inventions." Türk advises performers to prepare cadenzas for important performances in advance and deliver them as if they were improvised fantasias.

52  Sperger, Concerto Ex D per il Contrabasso [No. 1, 1777], D-SWI: Mus 5176/3.

53 Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 79. "L 2n: Kleines Einzelblatt mit den Kadenzen zu einem Kontrabaßkonzert. Inhalt: Kadenzen in den Tonarten D-, A-, und D-dur." [L 2n: Small single sheet with cadenzas for a contrabass concerto. Contents: Cadenzas in the keys of D, A, and D major.] Meier does not attribute these cadenzas to a concerto. My doctoral thesis shows how the fermata before and the incipit after the Adagio lead-in match bars 54-55 of the Romance in Concerto No. 16. See J. M. Sperger, Konzert Nr. 16 in D-Dur (T16) für Kontrabass und Orchester (Klavier), ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Vienna: Doblinger, 2015), 8 (solo part) and 22 (score).

54 Giovanni Sperger, Concerto in B♭ per il Contrabasso [No. 11, 1787], D-SWI: Mus 5177/2 solo part, 19.

55 Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis,69-71. Sperger's estate also holds two keyboard cadenzas in C and G major; see Mus 5872/4, L 3c.

56 J. M. Sperger, Wegweiser auf die Orgel, vor mich [A Guide to the Organ for Myself](1766). D-SWI: Mus 5121.

57 Robert Levin, Cadenzas to Mozart's Violin Concertos (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1992). Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Horn Concerto No. 4 in Emajor, KV 495, ed. Henrik Wiese and J. Philip Schulze, cad. Robert Levin (Munich: Henle, 2002). Levin also provided cadenzas and lead-ins for the viola concertos by Hoffmeister and Stamitz. See Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Viola Concerto in D major, ed. Norbert Gertch and Julia Ronge (Munich: Henle, 2003) and Carl Stamitz, Viola Concerto No. 1 in D major,ed. Norbert Gertch and Annemarie Weibezahn (Munich: Henle, 2003).

58 Aaron Berkowitz, The Improvising Mind: Cognition and Creativity in the Musical Moment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 155-177.

59 Juniper Hill, "Incorporating Improvisation into Classical Music Performance," in Musicians in the Making: Pathways to Creative Performance, ed. John Rink, Helena Gaunt, and Aaron Williamon, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 231-233. Hill cites Albert Lord, The Singer of Tales (Cambridge: Harvard University Press: 1960).

60 Jeff Pressing, "Psychological Constraints on Improvisational Expertise and Communication," in In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation, ed. Bruno Nettl and Melinda Russell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 51-56.

61 Fetsch, "Cadenzas in the Mozart Concertos," 17.

62 Renaud Boucher-Browning, "Reviving a Lost Art: Improvising Cadenzas and Lead-ins for the Contrabass Concertos of J. M. Sperger (1750-1812)," D.Mus. Thesis in Double Bass Performance Studies, McGill University, 2020.

63 Levin, "Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas," 280. Swain, "Form and Function of the Classical Cadenza," 44.

64 Heinrich Schneikart, Kadenzen zu Kontrabaßkonzerten von Capuzzi, Zimmermann, und Dittersdorf (Wien: Doblinger, 1975). Heinz Karl Gruber, Kadenzen zum Konzert in D für Kontrabaß und Orchester von Johann Baptiste Vanhal, ed. Ludwig Streicher (Vienna: Doblinger, 1978). Heinz Karl Gruber, Kadenzen zum Konzert in E für Kontrabaß und Orchester von Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, ed. Ludwig Streicher (Vienna: Doblinger, 1978). Heinrich Schneikart, Kadenzen zum Kontrabaßkonzert von Vanhal (Wien: Doblinger, 1988). Klaus Stoll, Cadenzas for Double Bass: 9 Classic Concertos, 15 Cadenzas (Gothenburg: Almusik AB, 2016).

65 Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Double Bass Concerto in E major (Krebs 172), ed. Tobias Glöckler (Munich: Henle, 2005). Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Double Bass Concerto "No. 1" with Violin obbligato, ed. Tobias Glöckler (Munich: Henle, 2002). J. M. Sperger, Konzert Nr. 2 in D-Dur für Contrabass und Orchester, ed. Rudolph Malarić (Wien: Doblinger, 1983). J. M. Sperger, Konzert D-Dur (Nr. 2) für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Hofheim: Hofmeister, 1999). J. M. Sperger, Concert Nr. 11 [7] für Contrabass und Orchester, ed. Rudolph Malarić (Wien: Doblinger, 1959). J. M. Sperger, Konzert D-Dur (Nr. 15) für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Michinori Bunya, cadenzas by Claus Kühnl (Hofheim: F. Hofmeister Musikverlag, 1999). J. M. Sperger, Konzert Nr. 16 in D-Dur (T16) für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Vienna: Doblinger, 2015). für Kontrabass und Orchester, ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Vienna: Doblinger, 2017). J. M. Sperger, Konzert Nr. 18 in H-moll (T18),ed. Klaus Trumpf and Miloslav Gajdoš (Vienna: Doblinger, 2018). Johann Baptiste Vanhal, Double Bass Concerto, ed. Tobias Glöckler (Munich: Henle, 2015).

66 For more on the practice of reduction, see Shanti Nachtergaele, "From Divisions to Divisi: Improvisation, Orchestration, and The Practice of Double Bass Reduction," Early Music 46, no. 3 (August 2018): 483-500.

67 Josef Focht, "Zu Rosetti und einigen seiner süddeutschen Weggefährten in Ludwigslust" [Rosetti and some of his South German companions in Ludwigslust], Rosetti-Forum 10 (2009): 55. Focht, "Die Position Spergers," 35.

68 Stowell, "Performance Practice in the Eighteenth-Century Concerto," 225.

69 Whitmore, Unpremeditated Art, 1-35. Whitmore uses this analogy along with others to describe cadenzas.

70 Caplin, Analyzing Classical Form, 674.

71 Lydia Goehr, "Conflicting Ideals of Performance: Perfection in an Imperfect Practice," in The Quest for Voice: On Music, Politics, and the Limits of Philosophy, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 170-171.

72 "Central Europe 1789: Boundary of the Empire," The Public Schools Historical Atlas, ed. C. Colbeck (Univ. of Texas-Austin, 1905), accessed 8 June 2020, http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/central_europe_1789.htm. Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 6. Trumpf, "The Mozart Requiem for a Double Bassist, Part 3," 17-19.

73 This timeline is not a complete list of extant late-eighteenth century contrabass concertos. This list also includes concertos by Zimmermann and Hoffmeister that are not held in Sperger's estate for purposes of disambiguation. Dittersdorf, Double Bass Concerto (Krebs 172), 2. Glöckler, "Ein Ganz Besonders 'Schmankerl,'" 33-40. Hoffmeister, Double Bass Concerto "No. 1," iii. Meier, Thematisches Werkverzeichnis, 34-43.Meier, Konzertante Musik für Kontrabass, 142-158. Múdra, Anton Zimmermann,219-221. Vanhal, Double Bass Concerto, v.